- SYMBOLS- Symbols help customers memorize organizations products and services. They help us correlate positive attributes that bring us closer and make it convenient for us to purchase those products and services. Symbols emphasize our brand expectations and shape corporate images. Symbols become a key component of brand equity and help in differentiating the brand characteristics. Symbols are easier to memorize than the brand names as they are visual images. These can include logos, people, geometric shapes, cartoon images, anything. For instance, Marlboro has its famous cowboy, Pillsbury has its Poppin Fresh doughboy, Duracell has its bunny rabbit, Mc Donald has Ronald, Fed Ex has an arrow, and Nikes swoosh. All these symbols help us remember the brands associated with them.
Brand symbols are strong means to attract attention and enhance brand personalities by making customers like them. It is feasible to learn the relationship between symbol and brand if the symbol is reflective/representative of the brand. For instance, the symbol of LG symbolize the world, future, youth, humanity, and technology. Also, it represents LGs efforts to keep close relationships with their customers.
- LOGOS- A logo is a unique graphic or symbol that represents a company, product, service, or other entity. It represents an organization very well and make the customers well-acquainted with the company. It is due to logo that customers form an image for the product/service in mind. Adidass Three Stripes is a famous brand identified by its corporate logo.
Features of a good logo are :
- It should be simple.
- It should be distinguished/unique. It should differentiate itself.
- It should be functional so that it can be used widely.
- It should be effective, i.e., it must have an impact on the intended audience.
- It should be memorable.
- It should be easily identifiable in full colours, limited colour palettes, or in black and white.
- It should be a perfect reflection/representation of the organization.
- It should be easy to correlate by the customers and should develop customers trust in the organization.
- It should not loose its integrity when transferred on fabric or any other material.
- It should portray companys values, mission and objectives.
The elements of a logo are:
- Logotype - It can be a simple or expanded name. Examples of logotypes including only the name are Kelloggs, Hyatt, etc.
- Icon - It is a name or visual symbol that communicates a market position. For example-LIC hands, UTI kalash.
- Slogan - It is best way of conveying companys message to the consumers. For instance- Nikes slogan Just Do It.
- TRADEMARKS- Trademark is a unique symbol, design, or any form of identification that helps people recognize a brand. A renowned brand has a popular trademark and that helps consumers purchase quality products. The goodwill of the dealer/maker of the product also enhances by use of trademark. Trademark totally indicates the commercial source of product/service. Trademark contribute in brand equity formation of a brand. Trademark name should be original. A trademark is chosen by the following symbols:
(denotes unregistered trademark, that is, a mark used to promote or brand goods);
SM (denotes unregistered service mark)
® (denotes registered trademark).
Registration of trademark is essential in some countries to give exclusive rights to it. Without adequate trademark protection, brand names can become legally declared generic. Generic names are never protectable as was the case with Vaseline, escalator and thermos.
Some guidelines for trademark protection are as follows:
- Go for formal trademark registration.
- Never use trademark as a noun or verb. Always use it as an adjective.
- Use correct trademark spelling.
- Challenge each misuse of trademark, specifically by competitors in market.
- Capitalize first letter of trademark. If a trademark appears in point, ensure that it stands out from surrounding text.