Techniques of Scientific Management
- It is a technique which enables the manager to ascertain standard time taken for performing a specified job.
- Every job or every part of it is studied in detail.
- This technique is based on the study of an average worker having reasonable skill and ability.
- Average worker is selected and assigned the job and then with the help of a stop watch, time is ascertained for performing that particular job.
- Taylor maintained that Fair days work should be determined through observations, experiment and analysis by keeping in view an average worker.
Standard Time × Working Hours = Fair Days Work
- In this study, movement of body and limbs required to perform a job are closely observed.
- In other words, it refers to the study of movement of an operator on machine involved in a particular task.
- The purpose of motion study is to eliminate useless motions and determine the bet way of doing the job.
- By undertaking motion study an attempt is made to know whether some elements of a job can be eliminated combined or their sequence can be changed to achieve necessary rhythm.
- Motion study increases the efficiency and productivity of workers by cutting down all wasteful motions.
- Taylor advocated functional foremanship for achieving ultimate specification.
- This technique was developed to improve the quality of work as single supervisor may not be an expert in all the aspects of the work.
- Therefore workers are to be supervised by specialist foreman.
- The scheme of functional foremanship is an extension of principle pf specialization at the supervisory level.
- Taylor advocated appointment of 8 foramen, 4 at the planning level & other 4 at implementation level.
- The names & function of these specialist foremen are: -
- Instruction card clerk concerned with tagging down of instructions according to which workers are required to perform their job
- Time & cost clerk is concerned with setting a time table for doing a job & specifying the material and labor cost involved in it.
- Route clerk determines the route through which raw materials has to be passed.
- Shop Disciplinarians are concerned with making rules and regulations to ensure discipline in the organization.
- Gang boss makes the arrangement of workers, machines, tools, workers etc.
- Speed boss concerned with maintaining the speed and to remove delays in the production process.
- Repair boss concerned with maintenance of machine, tools and equipments.
- Inspector is concerned with maintaining the quality of product.
- It implies the physical attitude of products should be such that it meets the requirements & needs of customers.
- Taylor advocated that tools & equipments as well as working conditions should be standardized to achieve standard output from workers.
- Standardization is a means of achieving economics of production.
- It seems to ensure -
- The line of product is restricted to predetermined type, form, design, size, weight, quality. Etc
- There is manufacture of identical parts and components.
- Quality & standards have been maintained.
- Standard of performance are established for workers at all levels.
Differential Piece Wage Plan
- This tech of wage payment is based on efficiency of worker.
- The efficient workers are paid more wages than inefficient one.
- On the other hand, those workers who produce less than standard no. of pieces are paid wages at lower rate than prevailing rate i.e. worker is penalized for his inefficiency.
- This system is a source of incentive to workers who improving their efficiency in order to get more wages.
- It also encourages inefficient workers to improve their performance and achieve their standards.
- It leads to mass production which minimizes cost and maximizes profits.
- Various other techniques have been developed to create ordeal relationship between management and workers and also to create better understanding on part of works.
- Those includes use of instruction cards, strict rules & regulations, graphs, slides, charts etc, so as to increase efficiency of workers.
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- What is Management ?
- Management as a Process
- Management as an Activity
- Management as a Discipline
- Management as a Group
- Management as a Science
- Management as an Art
- Management as a Profession
- Features of Management
- Levels of Management
- Objectives of Management
- Importance of Management
- Management and Administration
- Functions of Management
- Co-ordination - Introduction
- Co-ordination and Co-operation
- Management Principles
- Management Principles - Features
- Importance of Management Principles
- Scientific Management - Introduction
- Principles of Scientific Management
- Techniques of Scientific Management
- Criticism of Scientific Management
- Taylor and Fayol