Anderson & Anderson’s Change Model

Anderson & Anderson’s model of change provides a comprehensive coverage of the entire process of change and equally explains the whole process of change as a cyclical process (Anderson and Anderson, 2001, p. 13). This model briefly views change from three perspectives:

  1. Content: It analyzes the technical as well as the organizational factors which require change;

  2. People: This analyzes the subjective factors such as the mindset, changes in the behavioral patterns of people as well as the cultural changes;

  3. Process: This stage is related with the possible action plans or strategies that can be crafted and implemented for driving the change initaitive successfully across the organziation.

All the three processes are integrated and interdependent on each other. The model is illustrated through nine phases as demonstrated in the diagram below:

Anderson and Anderson Change Model

Source: Adapted from Anderson and Anderson (2001, p. 15)

Phase I - Preparing to Lead the Change Initiative: Any change in an organization is the result of a wake-up call which an employee receives in an organziation. During this phase, the employees of the organization, as well as the management, reach a consensus regarding the need for change. The strategies for managing change are implemented as well as the employees are prepared for dealing with the change process through effective communication and involvement of the employees in the entire process. The employees are prepared for the change process by:

  • Role Clarification and selection of the best-suited skill sets or expertise as per the requirements of the role.

  • Motivating the employees for endorsing the change initiatives by determining the need for change and highlighting the possible outcomes of change and how it may influence the organizational functioning as a whole.

  • Ascertaining the organization’s preparedness as well as the capacity to implement the change initiative.

  • Identifying and strengthening the capacity of the champions of change or the change initiators to develop and implement change models successfully by analyzing behavioural, process oriented as well as organizational factors.

  • Developing various approaches to change management, defining the structures, processes as well as the pre-requisites for implementing change in the organization successfully.

Phase II - Defining the Organizational Vision, Commitment and strengthening the Capabilities: This stage relates to building organization wide commitment, understanding and strengthening the capacity to succeed in the transformation process (Anderson and Anderson, 2001, p. 129). This can be achieved by:

  • Building a strong case for change and motivating the employees to embrace the change by sharing the futuristic vision.

  • Planning and utilizing effective techniques for communication that may help in fostering a deeper understanding regarding the change.

  • Planning and organizing periodic training programmes aiming at changing the employee mindset from following the traditional style of working to endorsing the newer methodologies or changed techniques.

  • Seeking employee involvement and participation in the process by obtaining their inputs on various issues related with the process of change management.

  • Allocation of responsibilities by identifying the key players across all the levels of the organization.

Phase III - Determine the Design Requirements by Assessing the Situation: This is the stage during which the existing situation or the current realities of an organization are assessed and defining the expectations clearly regarding what are desired outcomes which can be achieved through implementation of change. This can be achieved by:

  • Clear definition of expectations for achieving successful outcomes of change.

  • Creating various design scenarios which might influence the change and evaluation of various alternatives before the implementation of change.

  • Determining what is required to be stopped or dismantled and creating a fresh roadmap for achieving successful outcomes of change management.

Phase-IV - Enabling achievement of the Vision by Creating the Desired Design State: This phase involves designing the organizational as well as cultural solutions which may help in the realization of the ultimate vision. This can be achieved by:

  • Achieving the desired state by establishing the desired processes as well as the structures.

  • Providing power to the nominated employees for deciding on various design levels which include - vision, strategies, operational and managerial.

  • Deciding about the usage of the pilot test and also various communication modes which can be used across the organization.

Phase V - Analysis of the Impact: The magnitude of the impact can be measured by using the Gap Analysis tool which would highlight the key areas or issues which can be addressed by crafting a realistic plan of action. During this phase, the champions of change need to focus on the formal organizational processes and also the behavioural, cultural and human factors and the interlinkages between them.

Phase VI: Masterminding the implementation plans, integrating various actions for achieving efficiencies and optimizing resource utilization. It involves the implementation of strategies, defining the timelines and managing the key processes for reaching the desired state.

Phase VII - Implementing the Change Plans: During this phase, the change initiators should pay attention to the following parameters;

  • Implementing the master plan for reaching the desired state by paying attention to dealing with resistance, managing employee’s reactions and dealing with it.

  • Constantly monitoring the entire process of implementation involving critical aspects like communication delivery, the reaction of employees as well as identifying the need for coaching and training.

Phase VIII - Celebrating as well as Integrating the New State: This is the stage for celebrating the achievement of the desired state and making people in the organization aware that they are in the new state. Rewarding the people who have made active contributions towards the achievement of the desired state. It equally involves integrating the employees and supporting them for mastering the new behaviours, skills and competencies. This integration and support may take the forms of training & development, mentoring and coaching of employees, identifying best practices and rewarding outstanding performances, benchmarking the practices or success stories of other organizations and organizing seminars/workshops, projects, etc.

Phase IX - Learning & Correct Course: This is the last phase which involves paying attention to the following factors:

  • Creating effective processes/mechanisms for achieving continuous improvement.

  • Continuously evaluating and learning on how effectively the entire process of change and processes were designed and implemented.

  • Improving the organization’s readiness as well as along with the abilities for driving future changes successfully.

  • Closing down the process of change by dismantling the temporary structures, infrastructure as well as the conditions which do not meet the requirements of the new organization any longer.

Anderson & Anderson’s model of change management is a much more comprehensive model and is very useful for addressing various kinds of change in the organization. Apart from this, it equally describes the change in nine cyclical phases and gives due importance to all the strategic decisions which should be considered by the champions of change. The model provides strategic alternatives for addressing various challenges which may arise during different phases of the change.


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Change Management